Sunday, May 24, 2020

Isolation And The American Dream - 1022 Words

Brianna Kalman Ms. Creveling English III CP 5/4/2016 Isolation and The American Dream What is Isolation? Isolation is the act of separating something from other things. Some may relate isolation to a disease or as to just being a â€Å"loner†. To feel isolated and lonely you feel like there is no hope, no future, no dreams or goals in store for you. Which in John Steinbeck’s novel Of The Mice and Men, shows all throughout in the characters. The novel takes place in Soledad, which Steinbeck describes as a very depressing environment, especially since the characters and migrant workers are being faced with dealing with The Dust Bowl and Great Depression. Another aspect of isolation is shown through the characters is the idea of the American Dream. Steinbeck hints to us that even through hard work and prosperity, it is unattainable which is represented through every character during this vulnerable period. Going further with The American Dream, that is all Forrest strived for in the film Forrest Gump. Forrest’s three important goals he strived for wa s to be loyal, help as many people as he could while still fulfilling his dreams, and to be non-judgemental. Unfortunately Forrest is very familiar with being judged and feeling unaccepted, being that when he was younger he had trouble walking and needed assistance which resulted in being bullied. Portraying throughout both the novel and the film, The American Dream and Isolation play a major role. In the novel Of Mice and Men,Show MoreRelatedNeuman Malik. Ms. Vritsios. Eng3Uo. Apace Behold Dives.1550 Words   |  7 PagesMartel are great novels which share common themes. The main characters of the novels are Gatsby and Pi, they share common goals. Gatsby and Pi go through isolation and put out love with hope to achieve the American dream. Gatsby and Pi are characters who never give up in achieving their goals. â€Å"Inside every rich man is a poor kid that followed his dreams.† Quote by Sandile Shezi. Shezi as a child used to sell muffins on the street, now at twenty-three years old he is a self-made millionaire. Shezi isRead MoreOf Mice and Men Expository Essay1024 Words   |  5 Pagesdescribes the chase of the American Dream. Although achieving the American Dream is a great desire for all, seldom does it actually come true. George and Lennie, the two main characters in the book, have a goal of pursuing their version of the American Dream, as do many other characters. However, due to relationships and other conflicts, that dream is not achieved. Almost immediately, Steinback poses the question of whether or not companionship leads to failure of the American Dream. For example, GeorgeRead MoreThe American Dream1179 Words   |  5 Pagesobstacles that stand in the way of that ambition, reveal the impossibility of the American Dream, while the loneliness and isolation of the members of the ranch offer a true insight into the nature of human existence, especially when the weaknesses of the characters cause them to destroy those more vulnerable. Characters such as Crooks offered the readers an insight into the discrimination and segregation in American society, where, unlike the others, he is isolated and treated differently based onRead MoreCandy Character Analysis1113 Words   |  5 Pagesloneliness through every page in because it is shown in both central, and in particularly, secondary characters. Being one of the oldest and unpopular workers, Candy is always haunted by his solitude. Crooks, also a minor character, experie nces with isolation on physical and mental levels. Loneliness is continuously shown in the role of Curleys wife. The two main characters of this book are, George and Lennie; direct opposites, but they still have a strong relationship between each other throughout theRead MoreAnalysis Of Mice And Men 1390 Words   |  6 PagesEnd Of Year Exam English by Jamali Blair Soledad; salubrious and like paradise in terms of setting but the complete opposite for its friendless, despondent characters who are sick of their provincial lives. Loneliness is the feeling of isolation and no hope or dreams in your life-which is what Steinbeck achieves by portraying this theme effectively through key fictional characters in Of Mice and Men. By living in the town of ‘Soledad’ (Spanish for loneliness), the audience gets an overwhelming senseRead MoreRhetorical Analysis Of I Have A Dream Speech752 Words   |  4 PagesUpon the arrival of August 28, 1963 At the Lincoln Commemoration 200,000 individuals accumulated after the Walk on Washington. This is the place Dr. Martin Luther conveyed his discourse I Have a Dream to America. He talked about the treacheries of isolation and separation of African Americans that was occurring in our country. In his first explanation he stated, I am happy to join with you today in what will go down in history as the great est demonstration for freedom in the history of our nationRead MoreThe American Dream927 Words   |  4 PagesThe American Dream The development of urban communities, and their consequent rot because of a free enterprise request took after by endeavors to reestablish city life alongside a departure of those with means and/or fitting skin color helped by arrangement instruments. With the racial isolation got as a result (or perhaps item) of the chain of occasions would compress the appointed readings more or less. To expand from Dolores Hayden s From the Ideal City to the Dream House the JeffersonianRead MoreThe American Gothic in The Fall of the House of Usher by Edgar Allan Poe1539 Words   |  7 Pagesnew genre of literature in America; the American Gothic. Already a popular genre in Europe, this new strain of literature in America arose to create a rather abrupt contrast to the Enlightenment foundations upon which American was born. Instead of concerning subjects of liberty and the pursuit of happiness; key elements of the American dream, American Gothic literature embodies and gives voice to the dark nightmare that is the underside of the American dream (Savoy, 2003, pg. 167) Although containingRead MoreHeadphones : The Isolation Phenomenon870 Words   |  4 Pages Headphones: The Isolation Phenomenon One of the most significant restrictions on free immigration in the United States, was the Exclusion Act of 1882. The law was intended to prohibit the migration of Chinese Laborers, which isolated the Chinese people from Americans. In the 21st century, inventers have developed advanced headphones that enables the consumer to listen to different forms of media from different states and countries while simultaneously isolating them from the present world aroundRead MoreJohn Steinbeck s Of Mice And Men1243 Words   |  5 PagesLoneliness is an emotion of isolation and no hope or dreams in life, which is what John Steinbeck achieves by portraying this through the characters in his novella Of Mice and Men. The main characters are affected by loneliness in their own different way throughout the novella. rf The loneliness is maintained by the challenges that the characters have to face, and they sustain those challenges of being inhumane towards each other. Crook, a figure in the story who experiences discrimination encounters

Monday, May 18, 2020

The Black Codes And The Civil War - 1461 Words

With the Union victory in the Civil War in 1865, millions of slaves were given their freedom. Although these millions of slaves are now free, the rebuilding on the South during the Reconstruction introduced many obstacles. These obstacles include sharecropping, tenant farming, the â€Å"black codes†, and not to forget the lack of education and rights African Americans had at the time. Sharecropping is consisted of a slave renting land from a white man and having to give up a portion of their crops at the end of each year. The black codes were basically laws against what type of labor African Americans can be given. In the state of South Carolina, blacks were only able to work as farmers or servants; the same jobs these free people worked as slaves. After decades of slavery, blacks were still under the control of the white people due to lack of education and rights. In 1863, the Emancipation Proclamation freed all African Americans that lived in rebel states. For years, only the rebel states had free African Americans, however, after the Civil War, the Thirteenth Amendment freed all slaves, no matter where they were. Of course, after years of slavery, whites were not used to having free African Americans around them, creating a hostile environment. One former slave, Houston Holloway wrote, â€Å"For we colored people did not know how to be free and the white people did not know how to have a free colored person about them† (African American Odyssey 1). During the final months of theShow MoreRelatedThe Black Codes And The Civil War1705 Words   |  7 Pagesword was at the tip of almost everyone’s tongue, only it came with many names. After the civil war, slavery became more pronounced for the black people. The south then thought something ought to be done and passed laws called the black codes which begun the limitation of blacks’ rights and separated them from the whites; white supremacy began. Before, these laws would have been unnecessary because most of the black people were slaves and they were already segregated in public places like schools andRead MoreThe Civil War And The American War Essay1652 Words   |  7 PagesThe war with the most death of Americans was not the World Wars, Cold War, Vietnam War or Korean War, but the Civil War. The Civil War is one of the most monumental moments in the United States that threaten the stability of the Union. The United States was split into two opposing sides, the Union and the Confederates, with opposing ideas; Americans pinned against one another in combat for their ideals and goals. The Civil War has multiple causes, but the most renowned reason was the abolishmentRead MoreBlack Codes And Jim Crow944 Words   |  4 PagesBlack Codes and Jim Crow â€Å"For the next several decades, at least, we will suffer this racial future of colorblind white dominance† Ian Haney-Là ³pez argues in his book White by Law, however America today, though colorblind as America may be, is in a much better place than the times of the Black Codes and Jim Crow laws. These laws restricted the freedoms of African Americans living in the United States that just became free men and women after the turn of the Civil War. The Black Codes were laws passedRead MoreAfrican Americans And The Civil War859 Words   |  4 Pagesrespectively. Naturally, Americans denoted these momentous legislative feats, collectively packaged as the Reconstruction Amendments, as a means of celebration for African-Americans. However, in order to rectify the extensive damage that the American Civil War caused on the South’s infrastructure, labor systems, and economy, white Americans went to extreme lengths via the legal system in order to mimic the antebellum practices of slavery in the South. As newly freed African-Americans sought to exerciseRead MoreThe Freedom And Full Citizenship Of All African Americans907 Words   |  4 Pagesof this the south seceded and formed the confederate states of America. Shortly after, the civil war begun with the attack on fort Sumter and more southern states seceded. During the civil war Lincoln issued the emancipation proclamation that freed all the slaves in the states that secede d, this was the first step to the freedom and full citizenship of all African Americans. During the time of the civil war and reconstruction period constitutional and social developments moderately influenced a revolutionRead MoreConstitutional Developments During The Period Between 1860 And 1877 Essay1671 Words   |  7 Pagesthe period between 1860 and 1877, many major changes occurred in America. There were many constitutional developments in this time period, which include the Emancipation Proclamation, the Civil War, and newly added Amendments. There were also many social developments included the Ku Klux Klan and voting of black people. Some of these developments were a revolution, which is a forcible overthrow of the government or social order in favor of a new system, and some were not. The constitutional developmentsRead MoreIn What Ways Were the Byzantine and Islamic Civilizations Different from Civilizations Developing in Western Europe? in What Ways Are They Similar?984 Words   |  4 PagesBook Review: The Black Codes of the South Although this book is titled, â€Å"The Black Codes of the South,† the writer begins his story discussing slavery, then leads up to emancipation, where four million slaves were freed. The freedom of slaves brought about the enactment of the Black Codes in the southern states. Interestingly, the writer includes newspaper sources from the South, as well as the North, excerpts from various plantation owners ‘diaries, notices and laws. The Black Codes came to fruitionRead MoreEssay about The History of the American Civil War1140 Words   |  5 PagesThe American Civil war, also know as the War Between the States, was a bloody war to end slavery. It all started with eleven states seceding from the Union to form their own nation to be able to enslave the African American. The eleven states formed the Confederate States of America, also known as Confederacy, under their president Jefferson Davis. The Civil war came about in 1861 as the North wanted stop the eleven southern st ates from seceding and forming their own nation just so they can upholdRead MoreAfrican American Oppression Following The Civil War875 Words   |  4 PagesAfrican American Oppression Following the Civil War Following The Civil War, close to four million slaves were freed, but they were still faced with the systematic oppression of their past. Due to President Johnson’s support of state’s rights, many white southerners were able to place authority over newly freed slaves by establishing Black Codes, the KKK, and segregation. The new freedoms gained by African Americans following the civil war were insignificant because white superiority was heavilyRead MoreThe Challenges African Americans Faced in America963 Words   |  4 Pagesinflammatory issue between the northern and southern states, which would lead to the Civil War. During the war, President Abraham Lincoln had a view that slaves should be free to live their own lives. President Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation in an effort to abolish slavery nationwide. After the Civil War was over, it did not end the oppression of African Americans. For a number of decades following the war, African Americans will face a tremendous amount of racism, prejudice and oppression

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Airport Information Systems - 828 Words

Today most airports are facing problem in challenges that lie in the ability to respond to respond to the growing requirements of the many departments involved in operation, statistical and financial information. In order to have different department contained with in an airport working in harmony they must link and integrate their resources, people, equipment, facilities and information access the airport’s local and work area network Airport management system has proven to increase financial resources by dramatically increasing airport efficiency and ensuring that all aircrafts movement and services are invoiced correctly. A typical airport management system with information flowing between a central database connected to the†¦show more content†¦The relevant boarding passes are then issued, and the Guests can check their luggage in, and proceed through security to the departure gate area.. AFIDS 2001 - FLIGHT INFORMATION DISPLAY SYSTEMS Through TFT LCD displays and browser-based technology, AFIDS 2001 accurately display flight-related information to travelers, airline staff, retailers and ground staff.It also includes information regarding baggage and passengers. Information can be shown at check-in desks, arrival and departure areas and baggage carousels. Arrival and departure information can also be uploaded to the airports web site in exactly the same format that is being displayed within the airport. [pic] ATCAS - ATC ADMINISTRATION AND OVERFLIGHT BILLING The Air Traffic Control Administration System (ATCAS) allows air traffic control to share information with other airport departments. This information can then be used for correct allocation of stands or air bridges. It can also be used to create the mandatory statistics required by some government agencies including the National Air Traffic Service (NATS). The ATCAS includes a link to AFTN and other ATC systems such as flight strip printing, and it can also allow for over flight billing through and within the FIR. E-BOARDING PASSENGER SECURITY SYSTEMS As more and more carriers allow passengers to check-in on the web, airport security staff require a system to thoroughly checkShow MoreRelatedThe Use Of Airport Information Systems Between Civilian And Military Airports1412 Words   |  6 Pagesthere is a significant need for the use of Airport Information systems between civilian and military airports, a correlation research study is planned. Information will be compared from Class B military and civilian airports in three regions in the United States that average similar air traffic. The dependent variables are airports whose systems that do not allow to process information efficiently. Information systems are integral part of how airports are run efficiently and safely and it variesRead MoreCase 1: How Fedex Works: Enterprise System2951 Words   |  12 PagesCase 1: How FedEx Works: Enterprise System 1. Question 1: List the business processes displayed in the video. FedEx is a logistical service company specialized in transportation, e-commerce and business services. The success of FedEx lies on an efficient information system. The business process is as follows: A FedEx employee picks up the customer’s box and scans it so FedEx recognizes it. Now the product is registered and traceable. The product is then taken to a sorting center where itRead MoreManaging Information Technology (7th Edition)239873 Words   |  960 Pages CONTENTS: CASE STUDIES CASE STUDY 1 Midsouth Chamber of Commerce (A): The Role of the Operating Manager in Information Systems CASE STUDY I-1 IMT Custom Machine Company, Inc.: Selection of an Information Technology Platform CASE STUDY I-2, Inc.: Deciding on the Next Steps for a VoIP Supplier CASE STUDY I-3 The VoIP Adoption at Butler University CASE STUDY I-4 Supporting Mobile Health Clinics: The Children’s Health Fund of New York City CASE STUDY I-5 Read MoreCompany: Delta Airline1601 Words   |  7 Pagesproviding enough revenue for the development of different airports and also in air traffic control system. They are also providing different types of devices and scanners for checking the bags and other luggage of the passengers on the airport. List the information systems that are used to automate these processes. The information system of the delta airline is governed at different levels and stages. For managing all the information and data the company is using some E-commerce platformsRead MoreFeatures And Functions Of Information Systems Essay2193 Words   |  9 PagesFeatures and functions of information systems Features Data Data needs to be inputted into an information system so it can be managed and processed. Once processed, the end product is information, this is called an output. Data is generated by all parts of a business but can also be received via external sources. Data must be accurate or else the output information will be wrong. People People are involved in obtaining data and processing it to create information for specific purposes relevant toRead MoreBritish Airways Information System1483 Words   |  6 Pagespurpose of this project is explore how information systems helps organisations to make decisions at different levels to achieve set objectives and strategic advantages over competitors .The team carried out research and debate on various companies, and agreed to focus on British Airways. Through literature we found out, that BA is amongst the busiest premium international airlines worldwide, BA operates mainly from Heathrow, London city and Gatwick airports and flies over 35million people to moreRead MoreElectronic Commerce : Global Positioning System2046 Words   |  9 Pagesliterature review we will go through the literature side of all components for all steps required for our project, â€Å"Travel XTream†. Below is a list of the topics required to analyse critically. Electronic Commerce Management Information System Global Positioning System Initial Search and Strategy The inceptive search for literature for this project was very broad and consisted on several topics as mentioned before in the introduction. The strategy for the search was based onRead MoreAnswer This Assignment2239 Words   |  9 PagesMANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS IMT - MIS (Assignment Questions) Institute of Management Technology Centre for Distance Learning Ghaziabad 2 IMT CENTRE FOR DISTANCE LEARNING GHAZIABAD Distance Learning Programme MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS Notes: a. Write answers in your own words as far as possible and refrain from copying from text books/handouts. b. All answers should be of 200 words. c. Write on one side of the paper. d. Answers of Assignments I, II, III and IV (Case Study)Read MoreChapter 1 Accounting Information Systems and the Accountant14769 Words   |  60 PagesChapter 1 Accounting Information Systems and the Accountant INTRODUCTION WHAT ARE ACCOUNTING INFORMATION SYSTEMS? Accounting Information Systems—A Deï ¬ nition Accounting Information Systems and Their Role in Organizations CASE ANALYSES The Annual Report Universal Concrete Products Ross, Sells, and Young, LLP REFERENCES AND RECOMMENDED READINGS ANSWERS TO TEST YOURSELF WHAT’S NEW IN ACCOUNTING INFORMATION SYSTEMS? Suspicious Activity Reporting Countering Terrorism Corporate Scandals and AccountingRead MoreJoining804 Words   |  4 PagesTale of Two Airlines - Memorandum.doc Extracts from this document... Introduction Memorandum To: Elizabeth Windsor - Chief Executive Officer From: Martine N Michel - MIS Consultant (SMT-273754-02-08SP1) Management Information Systems) Date: February 17, 2008 Re: Analysis of Situation at London-Based Airlines CONFIDENTIAL As you are aware, there are some opportunities for improvement related to the London-Based airline. I have completed an analysis of a particular situation, based

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Changing of the Guard A Progressive Study of the...

The Changing of the Guard: A Progressive Study of the Privatization of Prisons Abstract Privatization of prisons is not exactly a novel concept. The Federal Government has been contracting out such things as the building of new prisons, the operating of prisons, and providing goods and services to prisons since 2003. Some of the companies that the government trusts to do all of this are Corrections Corporation of America, and The GEO Service Group, formerly known as Wackenhut. Although the government sees this step as a cost cutting measure, this change has not come without its problems also its detractors. Even so, privatization of prisons and the services it takes to operate them seems to be the way of the future for the corrections†¦show more content†¦During the late twentieth century, prisons once again hoped that they could support themselves and possibly even make a profit. The first public facility to be turned over to a private company was a secure treatment center for juvenile offenders that were violent. This transition occurred in 1976, and the number of institutions being run by private companies has increased at a rapid rate since that time. The Changing of the Guard: A Progressive Study of the Privatization of Prisons Statistics show that from 1995 – 2004, the number of inmates that were housed in private prisons rose from 12,534 to 98,791. Approximately seven percent of inmates are now housed in privately operated prisons in the United States. One major reason for the increase in privately operated prisons is that the private sector claimed that they could provide more services and better services at a lower cost than that of state operated prisons. In the 1980s when corrections started operating under the private sector, their claim of more and better for less did not appear to be accurate. According to Charles H. Logan who examined the costs of public versus private corrections in 1990 â€Å"Private prisons will notShow MoreRelatedPrison Reform Topic Paper : Prisons6604 Words   |  27 PagesPrison Reform Topic Paper Submitted By: Toni Nielson - CSU, Fullerton Unique Educational Opportunities Prisons are closed institutions. They are established and funded by governments to hold people against their will, but why punish (Zyl Smit, 2010)? What is the purpose of prison? This fundamental question stirs up a significant amount of debate. The government, citizens, educators, and even prisoners are divided about the right answers. There is disagreement in the US about the purpose ofRead MoreManagement Course: Mba−10 General Management215330 Words   |  862 PagesBUSINESS ENVIRONMENT WHERE THE FAST DEVOUR THE SLOW Our work in helping to increase the profitability of many of the world’s major companies (as well as our database surveys of many other companies) has made it clear that all this complexity has been changing the fundamental dimensions of business strategy and the meaning of its implementation. These changes affect a broad range of decisions, including the following: ââ€"  ââ€"  ââ€"  ââ€"  ââ€"  ââ€"  ââ€"  How to invest in technology How to lead meaningful human resourcesRead MoreOrganisational Theory230255 Words   |  922 Pagesa wide readership. Professor Stephen Ackroyd, Lancaster University, UK This new textbook usefully situates organization theory within the scholarly debates on modernism and postmodernism, and provides an advanced introduction to the heterogeneous study of organizations, including chapters on phenomenology, critical theory and psychoanalysis. Like all good textbooks, the book is accessible, well researched and readers are encouraged to view chapters as a starting point for getting to grips with theRead MoreStrategic Marketing Management337596 Words   |  1351 Pages119 120 128 136 139 149 153 159 165 167 169 169 170 174 182 188 192 202 214 215 221 223 223 230 236 241 246 248 250 251 255 261 4 Market and environmental analysis 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 Learning objectives Introduction: the changing business environment (or the new marketing reality) Analysing the environment The nature of the marketing environment The evolution of environmental analysis The political, economic, social and technological environments Coming to terms with the

Writing Proficiency Free Essays

Abstract The present study investigated the sentence-level errors of freshmen students at three proficiency levels and the aspects of writing that raters focused on while rating the essays. It views errors as valuable information for the following: For teachers, as it clues them on students’ progress; for researchers as it gives them valuable data as to how language is acquired or learned; for learners, as it enables them to reflect on their learning. The data for the present study is based on the data collected for a previous study. We will write a custom essay sample on Writing Proficiency or any similar topic only for you Order Now One hundred fifty essays written by freshmen college students on their first week of classes in five private schools in Metro Manila (30 for each participating school) were collected, word-processed, and subjected to rating and coding or errors. Most of the findings of the present study corroborate the findings of previous studies on error analysis and essay evaluation—that sentence-level errors have a significant role in essay scores. The raters still have the grammar accuracy model when checking essays, although it is just considered secondary to other aspects of writing such as the ability to address the prompt and organize the ideas logically. Introduction Areas of Writing Research Writing teachers and researchers have always set their teaching and research lenses on the variables that describe successful second language writing vis-a-vis unsuccessful writing. Because of this preoccupation, a plethora of research has been undertaken as regards the role of L1 in L2 Writing (Cumming, 1990; Krapels, 1991), L2 writers’ characteristics and proficiency (Hirose Sasaki, 1994; Victori, 1999; Deane et al, 2008), L2 writing process/strategies (Arndt, 1987; Becker, 2003), L2 writing feedback/evaluation (Ferris, 1995, 1997, 2002, 2003; Goldstein, 2001, 2005) L2 writing instruction (Zhang Zhou, 2002; Liu, 2003; Chen, 2005; Coombe Barlow, 2004) and L2 writer’s texts (Zhang, 1997; Hinkel, 1997; Hirose, 2003). In the analysis of L2 writers’ texts, researchers focus on the rhetorical and linguistic features that impact essay scores in different linguistic backgrounds (Becker, 2010; Gustilo, 2011). These studies are significant in that they help us in understanding the complex factors that underlie proficient and less proficient writing. Emphasis on Essay Evaluation In assessing essays, what do raters consider as more proficient and less proficient writing? Studies have established that factors such as content, rhetorical strategy or linguistic (grammar, spelling, vocabulary) and non-linguistic features (organization, style, content, etc. can separate less proficient and more proficient writing. These factors, however, are weighed differently by raters depending on their background and experience (Kobayashi, n. d. ; Weltig, n. d. , Cumming et al. , 2002). According to Weltig, ESL (English as second language), EFL (English as foreign language), and ENL (English as native language) rate rs weigh the aspects of writing differently. On the one hand, the ENL raters put more thrust on the non-language aspects (grammar and mechanics) and consider language-related issues as secondary in judging essays. On the other, ESL and EFL raters focus more on language erro Error Analysis As a corollary to this emphasis on essay evaluation, there is no wonder why almost inextricable in the analysis of L2 texts is the focus on errors that learners make in relation to their writing performance (Sarfraz, 2011; Sattayatham Honsa, 2007; Kitao Kitao, 2000). Previous studies have indicated that errors do significantly affect raters’ evaluation of the overall quality of essays. For instance, Sweedler-Brown (1993) attributed the low scores of L2 essays for the original than for the corrected essays to sentence-level errors. Kobayashi and Rinnert (1993) found that the same essays gained higher overall holistic scores when the errors were corrected. Kobayashi (n. d. ) also found that language use errors and coherence breaks influenced the English teachers’ (both native speaker and Japanese teachers) judgment in terms of content and clarity but not the Japanese university students’ judgments. The error-free essays were praised as very good, but the error-laden essays were penalized with low scores. Terms and Definitions of Errors Making errors is one of the most unavoidable things in the orld. In language acquisition, learning, and teaching, error has been referred to and has been defined in many ways. Catalan (n. d. ) reviewed the terms and definitions of error in Error Studies and consolidated these definitions using the communicative event framework (addresser; addressee; code, norm, and message; and setting). From the perspective of norm or well-formedness of a sentence, error is regarded as â€Å"an infringement or deviation of the code of the formal system of communication through which the message is conveyed† (Catalan, n. . p. 66). Dulay, Burt, and Krashen (1982 p. 139 as cited in Catalan ) corroborates this definition by saying that error is the â€Å"flawed side of learner speech or writing that deviates from selected norm of mature language performance† (p. 7). Errors are alterations of the rules of the accepted norm and are termed as surface errors which may be further classified as omission errors, addition errors, misformation errors, wrong order, spelling error, systems error, and the like. Also the terms overt and covert errors (Corder, 1973, Faerch, 1984, Medges, 1989 as cited in Catalan, n. d. ) may be added in the list. The former refers to errors that are not observable within the surface but implied in the message, and the latter refers to those that are clearly identifiable in the surface (Catalan n. d. , p. 8). Benefits of Error Analysis Error Analysis (EA) is concerned with the analyses of the errors made by L2 learners by comparing the learners’ acquired norms with the target language norms and explaining the identified errors ( James, 1998). Stephen Pit Corder’s (1967) seminal work â€Å"The Significance of Learner’s Errors† has given EA a significant turn in that it views errors as valuable information for three beneficiaries: for teachers, it clues them on the progress of the students; for researchers, it provides evidence as to how language is acquired or learned; for learners themselves, it gives them resources in order to learn (Corder, 1967 as cited in Maicusi, Maicusi, Lopez, 2000, p. 170). With this approach errors are regarded as resources for learning and teaching rather than as â€Å"flaws† which connote failure in the acquisition process and ,therefore, needs to be eradicated. Despite the criticisms against EA such as complete reliance on errors per se and not seeing the whole picture of the learners’ linguistic behaviour by looking also at the nonerrors (Gass Selinker, 1994; Maicusi, Maicusi, Lopez, 2000), EA has contributed comprehensively to Second Language Acquisition Theory and second language writing instruction. Aim of the Study The present study aims at investigating the sentence-level rrors of freshmen students at three proficiency levels and the aspects of writing that raters focus on while rating the essays. Specifically, the present study aims at providing answers to the following research questions: 1. Do writers with higher levels of writing proficiency commit the same errors that low proficiency writers do? 2. Are there significant di fferences in the frequency of errors committed by low, mid, and high proficient writers? 3. Which of these errors significantly decrease essay scores? 4. What aspects of writing that affect essay scores did the raters focus on while rating the essays? Method The Essays The data for the present study is based on the data collected for a previous study. One hundred fifty essays written by freshmen college students on their first week of classes in five private schools in Metro Manila (30 for each participating school) were collected, wordprocessed, and subjected to rating and coding or errors. Rating Three independent raters who are trained ESL teachers rated the essays using a holistic scale patterned after the TOEFL writing section and SAT scoring guides (Gustilo, 2011). Kendall’s Tau coefficient of concordance (. 71, p How to cite Writing Proficiency, Essay examples

Employee Engagement

Question: Assignment Task: Explain the term employee engagement. Outline the advantages of employee engagement. This should include elements like: sales growth, profitability, link between employee engagement with customer satisfaction and retention. Possible negative results of having demotivated and disengaged employees Prepare a detailed description of the practical employee engagement techniques used by your chosen organisation to motivate staff. This should include both the extrinsic and intrinsic techniques used. Possible areas to consider include leadership styles, wages, promotion of staff, and communications used within the organisation, teams and groups, training and development. Based on the findings of the research, provide recommendations which you believe would improve employee engagement at the organisation, and would overcome the barriers to implementing employee engagement. The Harvard referencing system should be used. Answer: Introduction: Employee engagement is a very necessary factor of any organization, for betterment, growth and expansion of the company. Employees generally bring in the business, as they are the representatives of the company and their interaction with the customers make them feel better about the company and draws a good image in their mind about the company and make them loyal to the company. If the organization is able to make its employees happy, then employees would make the customers of the specified organization happy. Employee engagement: The emotional feelings of the employees towards their organization of employment are called employee engagement (Walker, 2012). This emotional feeling regarding the organization generally influences the behaviors of the employees of the organization, and thus also affects the level of work of the employees. Thus, it can be said that, more the engagement, more would be the effort provided by the employees. The nature or types of jobs are also involved within the employee engagement, if the employees might feel mentally stimulated, the employee management communication, the trust between employees and management of the organization, ability of the employees to understand their contribution regarding the performance of the company through their own work, the growth opportunity of the employees within the firm, the level of pride the employees feel for their working in the specified organization (McGee, 2011). According to the vision of Sainsburys, they want to be the most trusted retailer, so that people should love to work in their organization and also to shop. The strategy of Sainsburys is to be unique and different from its competitors, and these can be only possible with the help of the satisfied employees. Thus, employee engagement plays very important role in Sainsburys. Types of Employee Engagement: Generally, there are three types of employee engagement. These are as follows: Firstly engaged, which represents such a situation where the employees usually work with a feeling of profound connection to the company where they are employed. The employees also feel to work with passion (Dickson, 2011). Thus, this type of employee engagement helps in innovation and in growth and expansion of the company. Secondly not engaged, this represents those employees which are checked out. In this type of employee engagement, employees are mainly working but not with their passion or energy (Garber, 2011). Thus, the result of the work is not much satisfactory here. Here work of an employee is equivalent to an individual walking in his sleep. Thirdly actively disengaged, this represents a situation, where the employees are not only unhappy but are also busy in showing their unhappiness in the organization and in their work (Dickson, 2011). Thus, this type of employee engagement is very harmful for an organization, as this type of actively disengaged employees also affect the other employees and their contribution towards the organization. Sainsburys human resource department has appointed a shrinkage specialist team to reduce the levels of wastage, loss and boost of the employees to maintain engaged type of employee engagement. Dimensions Of Employee Engagement The dimensions of employee engagement are What does the employee gets Employee engagement depends upon what the employees are getting in exchange of doing a job. This perk includes incentives, benefits, increment, and culture of the organization (Dhar, Kaila and Nair, 2009). What does the employee gives This depends upon the relationship between the seniors of an organization and the juniors. The employee should be well acquainted to the responsibilities the employee holds in the organization and also what they need to give to the organization. Do the employee belongs to the organization When an organization that includes the employees in their decision making, it gives the employees a sense of belonging in the organization. It gives the employee a sense that the individual is a part and parcel of the organization and not there just to do the work (Ryde and Sofianos, 2014). How can the employee grow Motivating the employee with new challenges and growth and giving them timely increment and promotions gives the employee an idea of how it will help in personal growth. The employee will be motivated when the individual has knowledge about the career growth and the contribution will also increase towards the organization (Dhar, Kaila and Nair, 2009). Sainsbury has retained 15,000 employees who have contributed to the company with 20 years of their professional career. Among these 15,000, there are 195 employees who have reached 40 years in the company. Sainsbury has started the Convenience Training College to train the team leaders, to achieve the dimension of the employee engagement (Ryde and Sofianos, 2014). Increase In Employee Engagement The business of an organization largely contributes to the employee engagement. The more the organization will grow, the more the people will get attracted to the organization. Before joining an organization, an individual first checks the history of the organization, annual output and how the organization will help in individual growth of the employee (Armstrong, 2013). Hence, an organization should work to enhance their business in order to increase employee engagement. Other factors within the organization which help in increasing employee engagement are providing better incentives to the employees, so that they get motivated. Provided the organization maintains a healthy atmosphere in the workplace, for example, marinating good relationship between juniors and seniors, healthy competition among employees, building trust among each other, they will also help in employee engagement (Armstrong, 2013). Sainsbury has employed around 11,400 individuals who have reached the age of 60 in the stores across the country (Garber, 2011). They emphasized on employee engagement, by taking the annual colleague survey through groups like, Great Place to Work groups. Sainsbury employs various motivational theories to motivate the employees. They provide the employees timely incentives, and staff reward schemes. The idea of these reward schemes was started by Sainsburys direct business team, to enhance the productivity, increase sales, and inspire the employees to perform better. Sainsbury rewards the employees by giving them condition free bonus cards. The employees can avail discounts up to 1000 (Garber, 2011). The cards are initially deactivated, but once the employee orders something, the card gets activated. The person can buy anything starting from clothes, beauty products, and health items to food. Relationship Between Motivation And Employee Engagement Motivation plays a very important role in an employees work-life. It is also helpful in maintain the work-life balance of an employee. Only motivated employees are found to be more engaged to their work as well as more loyal towards their employers. A motivated employee can achieve the goals of an organization more enthusiastically and rapidly. A healthy relationship between employer and employee also improves employee-engagement. Proper communication within the staff and involvement of employees in the decision making process, is the key strength of Sainsburys employee engagement activities.Rivera, A. and Flinck, J. (2011). Motivational level of the employees, within an organization can be improved byproviding a positive working environment for the employees, by appreciating their work by giving rewards, incentives and recognition, by involving the employees in the decision-making process of the organization, by increasing employee engagement, open communication, encouraging the employees to develop their skills and abilities and a continues evaluation and measurement of job satisfaction is necessary. Good organizations conduct a job satisfaction survey at least once a year. Managers can help employees achieve an overall job satisfaction by motivating them, and an employees internal motivation drive will help increase performance on the job. Sainsbury gives due importance to employee engagement activities as a result, it employs over 20,000 employees for more than 20 years. Hence, employee engagement in the given company has helped the company to survive in the market for long and also help taste success, and maintain a strong, healthy and long-term relationship with its customers. The Impact Of Employee-Engagement On Profitability Employee-engagement has a very powerful impact on the profitability of the company. Engaged employees are loyal towards the company, are secured about their jobs, hence work harder towards achieving the organizational goals of the company, and hence help maximizing profit for the company. Sainsbury lays emphasis on employee engagement programs. Brajer-Marczak, R. (2014). Sainsbury believes in collecting a regular feedback from its staff as well as its clients so as to get a continual information about its products and hence is able to maintain a healthy relationship with its employees as well as its customers, which also help to continuously innovate its product and provide innovative and better services to its employees. The senior management staff of the company makes a weekly visit to all its stores to enquire about the progress of work. By conducting a survey, Sainsbury has found that higher the level of employee engagement higher is the level of sales and hence higher profit. It was found that employee engagement contributes to about 15% growth of the yearly growth of a store. The Impact Of Employee-Engagement On Customer Satisfaction Customer satisfaction is the ultimate objective or the ultimate aim of any company. In todays world customers do not hesitate to switch their loyalty towards the companies and hence it is very important on the part of the company to give special importance to customer satisfaction. Continues innovation of products and services leads to customer satisfaction, also continuous feedback from the customers also helps improving the level of customer satisfaction. As, Sainsburys employees give a weekly visit to all its stores, hence they get a first hand information about the feedback of the customers which helps them to improve its products and services as per the wishes of the customers and hence satisfy the customers. Sainsbury also gives ample importance to the suggestions given by its employees to improve the performance of the company as well as helps in achieving the goal of customer satisfaction. The Impact Of Employee-Engagement On Growth Of The Organization Employee engagement also plays an important role in the growth of the organization. Satisfied employees are more loyal towards the company and hence are more concerned about the growth of the company; as a result work harder to achieve the goals of the company. Employee engagement helps in maintaining a healthy and a long- term relationship between the employers as well as employees. Sainsbury has found that employee engagement contributes to about 15% growth of the yearly growth of a store. In a global survey, it was found that the companies, which had, at least 25% growth in employee engagement has accounted for twice-net annual income. On the other-hand, the companies, which had lower, level of employee engagement amounted to about 28% less than the average growth. The Impact Of Employee-Engagement On Employee Retension Employee engagement is also helpful in retaining employees. As, employee engagement helps in building a long-term relationship with the organization, it also helps retain the employees. In Sainsbury, more than 15000 employees are been working for 20 years. In addition, approximately more than 195 employees are working for more than 40 years. About 11,600 employees are over sixty years of age., (2015) The Impact Of Employee-Engagement On Performance Employee engagement also has a strong impact on the performance of the company and on the performance of the employees as well. A healthy employer-employee relationship ensures high level of performance of the employees as a result the productivity of the company also increases. This is the reason, Sainsbury is able to sustain in the market for so long and has maintained a sustained growth. Disadvantage Of Disengaged And Demotivated Employee The most important disadvantage of unmotivated and disengaged employees is increase in number of resignations (Harb, 2011). Various factors that contribute to demotivated employees are unhealthy work culture, absence of trust factor among employees, disregard of individual performance and so on. Disengaged employees are mostly underperformers, if an employee is not engaged in any work, the efficiency will decrease, and hence it will result in laziness and lack of motivation in work. Demotivated employees can also affect the business of an organization which will affect the profitability of the company (Smith, 2011). If an individual does not find any interest in the work, that individual will take day-offs from work, as a result affecting the companys business. If the rate of employee retention decreases, the recruitment process of the organization will increase. Every time, a new employee joins, that person will need sometimes to get used to the organization. Hence, it will affect t he business of the organization as a whole (Smith, 2011). Sainsbury in collaboration with shrinkage specialists Checkpoint Systems worked towards decreasing the level of loss, wastage and enhance availability. A study was carried out to find the shortcoming, where 200000 employees were interviewed to study the relationship between employee engagement and retail loss. The result said 25% of the stores with least employee engagement could gain 19.6% of reduction in loss of profits that was affected due to lack of availability. The study also revealed that if the employee engagement rate was increased then it would result in 25% reduction in shrinkage, 9.8% waste reduction, and 9.5% loss of cash could be saved. The collaboration of Sainsbury with ECR has helped the company to understand the relation between employee engagement and business enhancement. It is due to this study that Sainsbury has got a clear idea about the disadvantage of disengaged or demotivated employees (halliwell, 2014). Conclusion Thus, it can be concluded that employee engagement and motivation is a very important factor for an organization. If an organization wants to flourish the business, the organization should keep in mind the various factors that increase employee engagement, because it is these employees in the organization that helps the company to grow (Karsan and Kruse, 2011). An organization should also keep in mind the welfare of the employees. The organization should motivate the employees by engaging the people to do challenging tasks, so that the employees do not get disengaged. The organization should introduce various schemes and bonus cards, using which the employees can get discounts in various commodities. Sainsbury has done a good job by introducing the scheme cards where the individuals can avail discounts up to 1000 in various commodities like, clothes, food, health products and so on. All these schemes motivate the employees to perform better and contribute to the growth of the organization. Recommendations Sainsbury gives ample importance to employee-engagement activities. Sainsbury mostly involve its employees in the decision-making process, other than that the company must involve other methods of motivating the employees as well. Providing incentives to employees, rewarding them, encouraging them to perform better, taking interest in their personal career growth as well, etc. The company must ensure that its employees take pride in whatever they do and are satisfied with their jobs. This helps to improve the level of employee engagement in the company. The company should also make efforts to make the employees comfortable to work in their organization. There are many employee engagement activities or methods which can be implemented in order to increase the employee engagement. Such processes includes sensitivity training, simulation programs, role plays, in-basket exercises, etc. All these help to improve the inter as well as intra personal relationships within employees. References Brajer-Marczak, R. (2014). Employee engagement in continuous improvement of processes. Management, 18(2). Bridger, E. (2014). Employee engagement. London: Kogan Page. CONNOR, J. (2011). Sainsbury's Talks Talent and Joins the Employee Engagement Taskforce. [online] Available at: [Accessed 19 Jul. 2015]. Garber, P. (2011). Coaching employee engagement training. Alexandria, Va.: ASTD Press., (2015). J Sainsbury plc / Home. [online] Available at: [Accessed 19 Jul. 2015]. RAYTON, B. (2012). Employee Engagement Task Force. [online] Available at: [Accessed 19 Jul. 2015]. Rivera, A. and Flinck, J. (2011). Employee-Led, Employee Engagement in the Federal Government: SAMHSA PeopleFirst. Advances in Developing Human Resources. WALKER, P. (2013). Real-world facts about Employee Engagement. [online] Available at: [Accessed 19 Jul. 2015]. Armstrong, M. (2013). How to manage people. London: Kogan Page. Dhar, U., Kaila, H. and Nair, J. (2009). 40 Management Lessons from Corporate World. Himalaya Pub. House. Garber, P. (2011). Coaching employee engagement training. Alexandria, Va.: ASTD Press. halliwell, j. (2014). Sainsbury's tackles employee engagement to reduce shrinkage. [online] Available at: [Accessed 19 Jul. 2015]. Harb, S. (2011). Employee engagement. Davenport, Ia.: St. Ambrose University. Karsan, R. and Kruse, K. (2011). We. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Ryde, R. and Sofianos, L. (2014). Creating Authentic Organizations. London: Kogan Page. Smith, K. (2011). Deep engagement and disengaged reason. The Australian Journal of Anthropology, 22(1), pp.40-55. Dickson, D. (2011).Fostering employee engagement. Amherst, Mass.: HRD Press. Garber, P. (2011).Coaching employee engagement training. Alexandria, Va.: ASTD Press. McGee, R. (2011).Employee engagement. Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. Walker, S. (2012).Employee engagement and communication research. London: Kogan Page.

Monday, May 4, 2020

Urban and Regional Planning in Australia

Question: Discuss about the Urban and Regional Planning in Australia. Answer: Introduction Urban and regional planning refers to the political and technical process that is concerned with how the land is development and used, planning permission, use and protection of the environment, the welfare of the general public and the overall design of the urban environment that entails, water, infrastructure, sanitation and urban public relation, transport and communication and security. Urban planning therefore, entails the general activities and endeavors taken to develop the urban regions. it can as well be considered as the city planning as an urban design (Hall Peter, 2012, p. 94). The process looks to have an order through developers who do need assessments in the urban and regional basis so as the suggestions towards development could be improved. The urban and regional planners are the technicians who are entrusted in this task. They are expected to portray good technical skills about the overall land use and planning, high level of communication skills, economics and also law. It is for the reason that, planning of a large city or for a certain geographical region, one need all the skills that will encompass the government issues, civic issues, economic and finance branches and also humanistic, legal and public relation scope. The items that are developed by this planning could entail developing and rejuvenating the lost glory of the region and the city in particular as well as erecting new infrastructure and systems of running the city (Freestone CSIRO Publishing, 2010, p.61). In Australia, regional planning can make a great difference to its cities and regions. Cities like Canberra, Sydney, Brisbane and Melbourne have previously recorded a bit of insignificant development. Within the last 10 years, that is, from 2000 to 2007, the cities have had little development as compared to the period between 1996-2007. From this observation, urban and regional planning might be the cause to this crippled development as it has been poorly done in Australian regions and cities. However, there is a promising outcome from the difference which is expected to be made in regional and urban planning in the Australian state (Rauscher Momtaz, 2015, p.158). Urban planning and influence to development in Australia Urban and regional planning has great contribution to the development of States and for this case, Australian state. The cities might experience change if they are well planned. Failure to have a planned cities and regions means that the results will be as well be poor in terms of development, health, justice and public services as well (Broadbent, 2013, p.243) Possible changes that would happen if Australia had a good Urban and regional planning. Efficient service delivery is one of the positive change that would happen if the urban and regional planners acted upon this idea. The government is in a position to offer its services with ease as the public services like the administrative centers would be strategized in the developed cities. However, there are numerous advantages that would result to some a good plan (Stevenson Central Queensland University, 1998, p.9). A good plan under this context will create spaces for the society settlement and business development in Australia. Taking the case of Sydney, which is among the planned region with an improvement of about 12% since the year 2000 to date, there is a significant rise in efficiency of the service delivery from different governmental and nongovernmental institutions which are set and strategized in the urban cities and the regions of Sidney (Huebner, 2009, p.131). Maximizing the land for settlement and the land for agriculture is another significant and positive change that would result from urban and regional planning. Agriculture is an important and crucial department that needs a lot of attention in the whole of Australia. To many states, in Australia, Agriculture is a major agricultural producer and exporter with over 325,300 employed in Agriculture, forestry and fishing as of February 2015. If the planners laid good strategies on the land policies and urban as well as city planning, there will be providence of land for agriculture and therefore the people will have reserved farms for pure agriculture. For this reason, the gradual agriculture would be boosted in the country economy. The high rainfall zones of Tasmania for example and the narrow coastal zone together with the south Australia where there are good livestock production especially on the Goyders line. The ongoing agricultural projects, would be boosted as soon as the urban and regional planning would be officiated (Masser, 1972, p.255). The sanitary and city cleanliness would be improved and a drastic deviation in public health would be achieved. There should be a change as it is realized that when people are set to stay in a set place, there is an ease to maintain the cleanliness of the cities. The reason is because the government will be in a position to set good strategies to dispose the wastes un the state and therefore maintain the sanitary positions of the cities. A tidy environment will facilitate health of the citizen. Urban and regional planning however would lead to a change of carelessness of disposing the trash and waste materials as one of the plan in this field is to make sure that the waste materials are not disposed anyhow but to a specific place and with appropriate caution (Smyth, Reddel, Jones, 2005, p.107) Urban and regional planning is also inevitable in our cities and regions as transport and communication sector would be developed. The planning of the cities means that there is a good roads and railway networks that will run from rural centers to different regions in the Australian republic. When there is good transport and communication means, there is a recorded change in development of the cities and regions. For instance, Australia is an agriculture state that need to transport the products from the farms to the cities. The process would work best in the urban and regions of Australia. Meaning that the functionality will be efficient (van Gool, Stuart-Street Tille, 2016, p.255). When we consider the aspects that the urban and regional planners work on, it is evident that they are in charge of infrastructure, land, environment and services that are offered in the towns. When the plans are good in Australia, for example as it is in the Queensland and Western Australia that the states have invested well on planning for their road networks and railway lines as well as the whole of transport matters, there is a promising development in these states. The reason behind the road and infrastructure development in these two states is that, the states have begun and went further in urban and regional planning (Davidson Wimberley, 2016, p.209). They have done this for the last decade whereby the land policies in regional planning has been given the priority in the whole of Australia. The regions have been seen to improve greatly as the agriculture systems have signified this stand. The states are providing enough food for their people and even some of these agricultura l goods are exported in other countries. This is a sign of how the cities and the Australian regions can develop if the plans are laid in place for the urban and regional centers. Natural Resources and Ecosystems Facilitation by Regional and Urban Planning Following the rise of air, water and the overall environmental pollution within few years. The Australian regions and cities are not exceptional as they have also been faced by the same problem. The regions have been facing severe consequences of this pollution have shown out vividly. In the Queensland, Victoria, Tasmania, New South Wales and the Western Australia are the parts in the Australia that has been undergoing through this challenge. The pollution is traced by poor sanitation and disposal of the city wastes and industrial run-outs in the distinctive areas. In the regions of Australia, there is also the challenge of global warming as the Carbon monoxide has increased as it in the whole globe. For the same reason, the problem can be traced from the Urban and regional planning in the Australian cities and regions. One of the reason is that, there is a problem in settlement schemes and the industrial centers in some states like the Tasmania state (Rauscher Momtaz, 2015, p.158). The problem created in such a situation is that, the factories and the companies operate in the areas that are very close to living or the settlement schemes and no control of their wastes. Urban and regional planning can be a move towards curbing this problem. This is because, when there is proper planning, the wastes disposal in all firms have direct sewage lines that are well fixed and prevented to endangered the life of human being who might be harmed over the same (Dufty-Jones Connell, 2016, p.126). The issue of health is as well a step that would be met when there is proper urban and regional planning. This is because, health is said to be wealth. When the urban places are not well planned. That is, in terms of infrastructure and systems, there is no smooth running of services. The networks to the health centers are not developed for the fear of policy change and likely hood of occurrence of outbreaks of diseases in the areas which are maybe so rural and remote. Regional planning would work efficiently in the Australian cities and regions (Llauss, Beilin Buxton, 2014, p.18). Urban planning and labor force participation in Australia There is also an underlying claim on the labor force participation and the urban planning. It refers to the participation rate and the measure of proportionality of people who are either employed or are finding jobs opportunities in comparison to the age of the working population. There is a general relationship between these two aspects in that, the higher the labor force in a particular town, region or city, the higher the potential of that region to develop economically. For this reason, urban planning plays a great role in this. Designs of workplaces, both for the government and for the non-governmental organizations, means that there is a higher possibility to have a bigger work force in that region. This population will be dependent on that city and therefore, what they will do to that region, in terms of good purchase and supplies will be directed towards developing hat region. The vice versa is also correct. When a region is poorly planned, there is no development in the econ omy as the people will not like to work in a low hygienic places or poor serviced regions or cities (In Stiftel In Watson, 2016, p.40). The proposition gives an adequate suggestion to Australia, its region and urban centers that there are all reasonable stands for carrying out the regional and urban planning for their regions and cities. It therefore means that there will be emergency of industries in a well-planned urban or a region. Having these firms around the region will increase the work force participation and therefore it is very important. For the year 2008 to December 2016, Australian republic has recorded a rise of workforce and decline of many trade and business firms as well as unemployment in the region. The workforce is big and there are no enough spaces for accommodating all these workers. This has come as a challenge as the nation is unable to absorb all of them in the working positions. According to the current research of the causes of unemployment in the region, regional and urban planning has contributed in this problem. Higher workforce also, improves equity and social inclusion (Christensen Le vinson, 2003, p.155). There is increased social cohesion tolerance and also reduced crime rates. These are attracted by good planning and thus Australia would be a better place if regional and urban planning were taken seriously. However, it can be solved by all means of urban planning. For instance, western Australia is well planned than other states of Australia. The results are that its cities and regions are well improved that other states (Knox McCarthy, 2012, p.328). Urban Planning and the Congestions There is as well the case of having congestion in Australian urban centers and mostly in big cities and regions. There has been a massive population growth for the Australians for the last one decade. Urban planning can help out in curbing this problem. There is a growing need for the planning as the populations need to looked after and be evaluated for the future plans. The existing infrastructure should be in a position to be improved so that the remedy over this population can be got. The Urban and regional planning encompasses the infrastructure of the regions and cities. When the infrastructure is rare, poor and unplanned, there will be a lot of spaces lost and some of it would be used to settle the problem (MacCallum, 2016, p.72). The existing congestion in these cities could be settled as well by good planning I the Australian regions and cities. Zoning would be a good move for the Australian cities and regions. Zoning involves the authority in designating specific areas and specifying varieties of outrights and conditional uses of land. It indicates the size of each sector known as the Zone. Australia urban centers and regions can change a lot if the local authority can act to have good and well defined zones. These Zones can be divided and specified each with its a specific strength. Areas of these land are divided in such a way that there are various uses if land permitted (Chadwick, 2013, p.79). This is mainly done in regional planning. Some areas are specifically meant to be set for agriculture, some areas for settlement and some for industries and administrations. It is a step to ensure that there is no wasted land. For instance, in Australian cities, its advisable to make sure that the areas set for settlement are somehow different from those set for agriculture (Thompson Maginn, 2012, p.204) The issue of the sanitary and service rendering by the government and companies are mostly situated around the settlement schemes. The step can only be achieved if there is proper city plans and regional plans. The Australian cities and region would therefore grow in economics as well in social developments and make a step forward through this plan. Practice is the solution to the issue of land divisions and specification as well (Chadwick, 2013, p.34). Participatory Planning Australia can indulge in Participatory planning as an urban planning paradigm that would emphasize on involving the whole community in the strategies of management endeavors of urban planning and also the community planning levels. The reason for this is that, when the diverse people are involved in such an activity, there is a high level of skills that would all be incorporated in the planning. In the community, there are very many people who are involved in the planning processes. Each individual is specialized in his or her own sect. When participatory planning takes place in Australia, where there are diversification of skills and workforce, the planning would inculcate an overall development to the cities and regions around the cities and regions (In Stiftel In Watson, 2016, p.44) The community based processes of urban and regional planning are often meant to show that the people are considered as part of the community and its development as well as creating participatory planning, helps in that it aims at harmonizing the diverse views among its participants and it assist to help in preventing conflicts between the opposing parties. In addition to this, Australia has many marginalized society groups which are less perceived in the regional development (Brunner, 2015, p.67). Having such a participatory planning would insure the position of participation in such groups. Conclusion In conclusion, the Urban and regional planning can lead to a positive deviation to the cities and regions in our land Australia. The proposition is supported by the factors around making a conducive environment for human existence and support for the ecosystem. According to The International Association for China Planning, In Pan, In Cao, (2015), the city would cease to develop if there are no good plans to help its growth. Urban and regional planning is one of the plans that when omitted, the results to the growth and development of the cities and regions would be worse and unsatisfying. When the local authorities engage the public into a constructive development of the cities and regions, the development is inevitable. The infrastructure, the land, the welfare of the general public are the highest motives that guides the urban and regional planners. The different states of Australia would make a difference if all of them engaged in a collective responsibility of region and urban p lanning. All of these state, from New south wales, Queensland, Victoria, Tasmania and Western Australia are in a position to develop and make a good environment to its people if they embraced these strategic endeavors (Maginn, Thompson, Susan, 2012, p.73). References Broadbent,T.A. (2013). Planning and Profit in the Urban Economy. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis. Brunner,J. (2015). Contemporary Issues in Australian Urban and Regional Planning. Hoboken, United States: Routledge. Dufty-Jones,R., Connell,J. (2016). Rural change in Australia: Population, economy, environment. London: Routledge. Freestone,R., CSIRO Publishing. (2010). Urban nation: Australia's planning heritage. Collingwood, Vic: CSIRO Pub. in Association wih the Dept. of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, and the Australian Heritage Council. Hall, Peter. (2012). Urban and Regional Planning. Routledge. Huebner,M. (2009). Impacts and benefits of transnational projects (INTERREG III B): A project within Research Programme "Demonstration Projects of Spatial Planning" (MORO) conducted by the German Federal Ministry of Transport, Building and Urban Affairs (BMVBS) and the Federal Office for Building and Regional Planning (BBR). Berlin: BMVBS. In Stiftel,B., In Watson,V. (2016). Dialogues in urban and regional planning: 1. International Association for China Planning, In Pan,Q., In Cao,J. (2015). Recent developments in Chinese urban planning: Selected papers from the 8th International Association for China Planning Conference, Guangzhou, China, June 21-22, 2014. Maginn,P., Thompson, Susan. (2012). Planning Australia. Cambridge University Press Textbooks. Masser,I. (1972). Analytical models for urban and regional planning. Newton Abbot: David and Charles. Rauscher,R.C., Momtaz,S. (2015). Sustainable Neighbourhoods in Australia: City of Sydney Urban Planning. Smyth,P., Reddel,T., Jones,A. (2005). Community and local governance in Australia. Sydney, NSW: UNSW Press. Thompson,S., Maginn,P. (2012). Planning Australia: An Overview of Urban and Regional Planning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. International Symposium on Advancement of Construction Management and Real Estate, In Wang,J., In Ding,Z., In Zou,L., In Zuo,J. (2013). Proceedings of the 17th International Symposium on Advancement of Construction Management and Real Estate. Chadwick,G. (2013). A Systems View of Planning: Towards a Theory of the Urban and Regional Planning Process. Burlington: Elsevier Science. Christensen,K., Levinson,D. (2003). Encyclopedia of community: From the village to the virtual world. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. In Stiftel,B., In Watson,V. (2016). Dialogues in urban and regional planning: 1. Knox,P.L., McCarthy,L. (2012). Urbanization: An introduction to urban geography. Boston: Pearson. MacCallum,D. (2016). Discourse dynamics in participatory planning: Opening the bureaucracy to stangers. London: Routledge. Stevenson,D., Central Queensland University. (1998). Agendas in place: Urban and cultural planning for cities and regions. Rockhampton, Qld: Rural Social and Economic Research Centre, Central Queensland University. Chadwick, G. (2013). A systems view of planning: towards a theory of the urban and regional planning process. Elsevier. Davidson, J., Wibberley, G. (2016). Planning and the Rural Environment: Urban and Regional Planning Series. Elsevier. van Gool, D., Stuart-Street, A., Tille, P. (2016). High Quality Agricultural Land in Western Australia: A New Decision Tool for Planning. In Balanced Urban Development: Options and Strategies for Liveable Cities (pp. 355-366). Springer International Publishing. Llauss, A., Beilin, R., Buxton, M. (2014). Contrasting residents priorities and planners visions in peri-urban Australia: can SEA enhance deliberative regional planning?